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U.S. Cities With the Best Work-Life Balance 2020

By comparing data on work intensity, legislation, and livability, study reveals a ranking of U.S. cities based on their success in promoting work-life balance to their citizens, and how they have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

See Rankings

As an innovative company in the age-old security industry, we at Kisi know first-hand how much of a difference it makes to work smarter rather than harder. Like everyone this year, we’ve had to adjust to remote working, while also trying to maintain a healthy balance between our work and life commitments.

We first explored the topic of work-life balance in our 2019 study by determining the U.S. cities whose residents had the most well-rounded work-life balance. This was gauged by looking at work intensity, livability and the well-being and rights of inhabitants. Considering that work and economic conditions have changed drastically in many cities since then, we decided to go further in this year’s expanded edition by exploring whether some cities were more impacted than others by the pandemic. The resulting index offers a look into how COVID-19 has changed and continues to affect work-life balance in major cities around the world.

This index is not designed to be a city livability index, nor is it intended to highlight the best cities to work in; instead, it is an indicator of a city's ability to provide a healthy work-life balance for its residents, while providing opportunities to relieve work-related stress. As a company based in Brooklyn, NY, we began by evaluating the local working climate in 50 U.S. cities. Then, to understand how American cities compare on a global scale, an international study was conducted, including 17 notable U.S. cities and 33 international cities known for attracting professionals and families for their work opportunities and diverse lifestyle offerings.

Firstly, we assessed each city’s overall work-life score, based on a series of factors such as the amount of time a person dedicates to their job — taking into consideration total working hours, commuting, and vacation days taken. This year we paid special attention to unemployment figures, as they have soared in many locations due to the economic fallout from the pandemic, as well as to the percentage of people who have had to undertake multiple jobs in order to get by as a result.

Next, we wanted to find out to what extent residents receive equal treatment, evaluating their access to state-funded health and welfare programs, as well as institutional support for equality and social inclusivity. We then determined each city’s livability score by examining its affordability as well as citizens’ overall happiness, safety, and access to wellness and leisure venues — allowing us to assess whether their residents can enjoy their environment after office hours.

Finally, we looked into the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on a city’s work-life balance in several key areas: the restriction of movement, the severity of lockdown measures, the overall economic impact, and the projected percentage change in employment as a consequence.

The result is an index encompassing 19 factors analyzing 50 cities in the U.S., followed by a global ranking of 17 notable U.S. cities and 33 international cities who recognize the importance of a work-life balance, and encourage it both directly and indirectly through policies and urban infrastructure.

Top Cities in the Ranking for Work-Life Balance

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1: Colorado Springs

Colorado

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2: Omaha

Nebraska

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3: Virginia Beach

Virginia

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4: Salt Lake City

Utah

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5: Sacramento

California

Top Overworked Cities in the Ranking

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1: Houston

Texas

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2: New Orleans

Louisiana

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3: Dallas

Texas

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4: Austin

Texas

Flag

5: Tulsa

Oklahoma

2020 Work–Life Balance Index

The final rankings display U.S. and global cities with the best work-life balance in order from highest to lowest. Each individual column is filterable, and the full methodology explaining how each factor was evaluated is at the bottom of the page.

  • Factors
    • Work Intensity
      • Hours Worked & Commute/Week
      • Overworked Population
      • Minimum Vacations Offered (Days)
      • Vacations Taken (Days)
      • Latest Unemployment
      • Multiple Jobholders
      • Paid Parental Leave (Days)
    • Society and Institutions
      • Social Spending
      • Healthcare
      • Access to Mental Healthcare
      • Inclusivity & Tolerance
    • City Livability
      • Affordability
      • Happiness, Culture & Leisure
      • City Safety & Stress
      • Outdoor Spaces
      • Air Quality
      • Wellness and Fitness
    • Covid-19
      • Covid Impact
      • Projected Unemployment
    Work Intensity
    Society and Institutions
    City Livability
    Covid-19
    2020
    2019
    City
    State
    TOTAL SCORE
    01
    09
    Colorado Springs
    Colorado
    37.7
    12.1%
    10
    10.2
    6.9%
    5.6%
    0
    82.6
    87
    73.2
    83
    94.9
    79.2
    96.1
    78.7
    94.9
    77.1
    76.4
    80.5
    84.5
    02
    08
    Omaha
    Nebraska
    37.6
    12.7%
    10
    10.4
    5.9%
    7.7%
    0
    85.9
    86.8
    80.3
    74.2
    96.2
    79.7
    96.3
    82.6
    86.3
    59
    79.8
    83.4
    83.79
    03
    14
    Virginia Beach
    Virginia
    37.9
    12.5%
    10
    10.6
    9.3%
    5.2%
    0
    87.3
    87.3
    80.8
    77.2
    96
    78.5
    94.3
    72.8
    86.3
    59.8
    78.5
    80.7
    83.02
    04
    -
    Salt Lake City
    Utah
    40.4
    14.2%
    10
    9.9
    5.3%
    6.5%
    0
    82.6
    84.7
    67.4
    79.4
    96.2
    79.4
    95.1
    83.6
    93.3
    83.8
    77.2
    82.9
    81.81
    05
    06
    Sacramento
    California
    37.5
    11.6%
    10
    9.7
    11.5%
    4.0%
    117
    82.6
    88.8
    86.1
    82.5
    92.9
    77.1
    90.7
    87.3
    92.3
    68.2
    64.9
    77.5
    81.45
    06
    11
    Albuquerque
    New Mexico
    37.4
    11.8%
    10
    9.4
    13.1%
    3.9%
    0
    98.2
    78.6
    62.5
    79.6
    94.5
    74.6
    88.5
    88.9
    92
    62.7
    68.6
    79.1
    80.75
    07
    13
    Denver
    Colorado
    39.2
    12.3%
    10
    10.2
    7.8%
    5.6%
    0
    82.6
    88.7
    73.2
    84.6
    94
    79.9
    91
    89.8
    88.5
    75.1
    67.8
    79.9
    80.42
    08
    04
    Minneapolis
    Minnesota
    39.6
    13.0%
    10
    10.5
    8.2%
    7.7%
    0
    85.9
    93
    82.7
    79.9
    95
    81.7
    92.9
    93.4
    86.2
    65.9
    71
    82.1
    80.33
    09
    17
    Milwaukee
    Wisconsin
    37.7
    11.8%
    10
    10.8
    8.4%
    7.6%
    0
    90
    89.6
    79.2
    75.9
    87.4
    73.8
    74.2
    88
    83.1
    64.9
    75
    79.4
    80.32
    10
    01
    San Diego
    California
    39.4
    13.0%
    10
    9.7
    12.3%
    4.0%
    117
    82.6
    89.3
    86.1
    82.5
    93.9
    81.5
    95
    92.1
    75.9
    68.2
    63.8
    76.4
    79.3
    11
    02
    Portland
    Oregon
    39.9
    13.7%
    10
    10.1
    11.1%
    5.4%
    0
    91.2
    89.3
    76.8
    85.7
    91.8
    80
    93.9
    88.8
    92
    69.9
    68.8
    78.2
    79.27
    12
    -
    El Paso
    Texas
    37.4
    11.8%
    10
    9.9
    8.7%
    3.7%
    0
    82.6
    80.7
    77
    72.9
    100
    78.7
    87.8
    72.5
    81.7
    52.1
    67.3
    78.2
    79.27
    13
    23
    Kansas City
    Missouri
    38.8
    13.3%
    10
    10.3
    7.6%
    5.8%
    0
    91.2
    84.5
    73.9
    73.9
    92.8
    73.5
    86.9
    77.1
    86.5
    55.4
    74.2
    81.4
    79.11
    14
    -
    Raleigh
    North Carolina
    39.1
    12.7%
    10
    10.6
    8.0%
    5.0%
    0
    90
    82.6
    79
    72.5
    97.4
    80.9
    96.3
    64.4
    76.8
    59.7
    72.3
    81.5
    79.03
    15
    10
    Seattle
    Washington
    41
    13.6%
    10
    10.4
    9.3%
    5.4%
    0
    82.6
    91.4
    79.1
    83.7
    96.2
    81.2
    98.4
    91.8
    88.9
    71.4
    66
    77.3
    78.77
    16
    25
    Wichita
    Kansas
    38.8
    13.9%
    10
    10.4
    10.9%
    6.2%
    0
    90
    82.2
    71.5
    73.9
    95
    73.6
    91.2
    67.6
    86.7
    56.9
    76.5
    77.4
    78.48
    17
    -
    Cincinnati
    Ohio
    37.8
    12.3%
    10
    10.9
    7.8%
    6.5%
    0
    90
    81.9
    78
    72.5
    95.1
    71.6
    79.7
    78.3
    74.7
    53.4
    71.8
    79.8
    78.08
    18
    -
    St. Louis
    Missouri
    38.7
    12.8%
    10
    10.3
    9.7%
    5.8%
    0
    91.2
    85
    73.9
    73.9
    96.7
    70.9
    77.4
    86.5
    75.6
    50.7
    72.4
    81
    78.02
    19
    22
    Columbus
    Ohio
    38.1
    12.5%
    10
    10.9
    8.2%
    6.5%
    0
    90
    82.6
    78
    75.1
    98.6
    74.5
    78.7
    74.2
    75.9
    55.5
    71.3
    79.6
    77.66
    20
    35
    Tucson
    Arizona
    37.2
    11.1%
    10
    10.5
    10.5%
    4.0%
    0
    90
    82
    70.3
    75.3
    92.9
    75.4
    88.7
    74.6
    92.5
    61.5
    61.2
    79.6
    77.64
    21
    34
    Oklahoma City
    Oklahoma
    39.1
    13.7%
    10
    9.7
    7.0%
    4.2%
    0
    92.4
    78.4
    71
    72.1
    96.2
    73.8
    92
    57.6
    79.3
    48.3
    74.2
    80.7
    77.35
    22
    30
    Tulsa
    Oklahoma
    39.5
    14.7%
    10
    9.7
    7.6%
    4.2%
    0
    92.4
    77.3
    71
    72.1
    95.2
    70.7
    86.2
    68.9
    79.3
    48.7
    75
    80.2
    77.17
    23
    03
    San Francisco
    California
    41.8
    13.2%
    10
    9.7
    11.1%
    4.0%
    117
    82.6
    87.2
    86.1
    89.2
    97.6
    84.7
    92.9
    96.8
    85.3
    68.7
    57.6
    78.3
    76.63
    24
    -
    Baltimore
    Maryland
    39.2
    12.5%
    10
    9.9
    7.5%
    5.3%
    0
    85.9
    86.5
    85.8
    80
    90
    72.6
    69.2
    85.2
    80.1
    60.8
    65.6
    82
    76.16
    25
    16
    Jacksonville
    Florida
    38.8
    12.1%
    10
    10.7
    8.8%
    3.5%
    0
    92.4
    87.3
    79.1
    77.5
    94.8
    74.3
    88.9
    56.5
    82.6
    53.6
    65.2
    81.2
    75.97
    26
    29
    Charlotte
    North Carolina
    40.5
    14.0%
    10
    10.6
    9.3%
    5.0%
    0
    90
    82.3
    79
    73.9
    95.7
    79.9
    94.6
    57.7
    79.1
    57.9
    71.1
    79.9
    75.76
    27
    -
    Honolulu
    Hawaii
    39.1
    11.7%
    10
    9.9
    12.5%
    5.7%
    30
    85.9
    89.5
    80.9
    80.8
    77.6
    79.7
    95.4
    87.4
    100
    68.1
    56.5
    75.7
    75.44
    28
    38
    Atlanta
    Georgia
    40.9
    13.4%
    10
    10.2
    8.5%
    3.8%
    0
    85.9
    78.4
    85.3
    75.8
    97.5
    79.7
    85.8
    77.7
    75.9
    52.5
    64.9
    80
    75.37
    29
    27
    Louisville
    Kentucky
    39.3
    14.0%
    10
    10.5
    6.0%
    5.2%
    0
    96.4
    78.5
    73.9
    76.2
    91.5
    73.1
    90.2
    56.5
    72.5
    45
    72.6
    80.1
    75.2
    30
    21
    Tampa
    Florida
    39.5
    12.7%
    10
    10.7
    10.1%
    3.5%
    0
    92.4
    86
    79.1
    77.1
    93.3
    77.5
    89.9
    72.6
    88.9
    54.8
    59.2
    79.7
    74.9
    31
    39
    Memphis
    Tennessee
    39.7
    14.3%
    10
    9.7
    11.9%
    4.3%
    0
    90
    74.1
    71.9
    72.9
    90.8
    70.3
    81
    60
    81.7
    48.6
    74.3
    79.5
    74.79
    32
    32
    Dallas
    Texas
    41.6
    15.0%
    10
    9.9
    7.5%
    3.7%
    0
    82.6
    80.8
    77
    72.4
    100
    82.1
    84.1
    74.6
    81.3
    52.1
    65.9
    79.9
    74.51
    33
    -
    Pittsburgh
    Pennsylvania
    39.4
    12.5%
    10
    10.7
    14.5%
    6.0%
    0
    90
    86.6
    78.9
    73.3
    93.1
    78.2
    91
    87
    74.1
    57.4
    61.4
    75.4
    74.51
    34
    31
    San Antonio
    Texas
    39.9
    13.8%
    10
    9.9
    7.9%
    3.7%
    0
    82.6
    81.8
    77
    73.8
    93.3
    76.3
    91.9
    59.7
    81.6
    52.5
    64.7
    79.9
    74.1
    35
    18
    Austin
    Texas
    41.4
    15.0%
    10
    9.9
    7.5%
    3.7%
    0
    82.6
    81.7
    77
    75.2
    96.2
    81.8
    96.1
    68.9
    78.7
    52.8
    64.4
    81.4
    74.05
    36
    -
    Washington
    District of Columbia
    41.3
    13.6%
    10
    9.4
    7.9%
    5.5%
    40
    86.9
    80.3
    88.3
    82.8
    91.9
    87
    88.2
    89.2
    85.3
    71.3
    55
    81.7
    73.94
    37
    24
    Chicago
    Illinois
    40.2
    12.6%
    10
    10.7
    12.0%
    5.2%
    0
    84.3
    85.6
    84
    81.9
    90.1
    83
    79.5
    92.2
    72.7
    60.4
    58.3
    75.5
    73.85
    38
    36
    Indianapolis
    Indiana
    39.4
    13.5%
    10
    10.3
    10.6%
    5.5%
    0
    90
    80.7
    74.1
    78.1
    93.6
    73
    84.6
    56.6
    69.5
    52.2
    68.8
    80.9
    73.29
    39
    12
    Las Vegas
    Nevada
    37.9
    12.1%
    10
    9.8
    16.4%
    3.8%
    0
    84.3
    79.7
    66.4
    81.7
    92.9
    77.4
    80.6
    81.2
    88
    58.4
    54.1
    65.2
    72.63
    40
    26
    Philadelphia
    Pennsylvania
    40
    12.8%
    10
    10.7
    14.1%
    6.0%
    0
    90
    85.9
    78.9
    75.5
    85.2
    76.5
    77.9
    90
    75.9
    58.8
    60.8
    75.7
    72.6
    41
    -
    Nashville
    Tennessee
    40.9
    14.0%
    10
    9.7
    9.8%
    4.3%
    0
    90
    77.3
    71.9
    73.8
    89.8
    76.8
    93.5
    60.6
    77
    49.6
    65.6
    79.5
    72.44
    42
    33
    Cleveland
    Ohio
    39.2
    13.1%
    10
    10.9
    11.7%
    6.5%
    0
    90
    84.4
    78
    73.7
    87
    68.8
    52.6
    83.5
    75.3
    54
    67.4
    72.5
    72.38
    43
    28
    Miami
    Florida
    40.9
    13.5%
    10
    9.2
    13.2%
    3.5%
    0
    92.4
    85.6
    79.1
    78.7
    81.1
    82.9
    81.3
    86
    89.7
    55.4
    56.8
    77.4
    72.23
    44
    20
    Phoenix
    Arizona
    40.6
    14.3%
    10
    10.5
    9.7%
    4.0%
    0
    90
    83.1
    70.3
    75.5
    94.1
    75.4
    86.8
    68
    84
    60.9
    58.3
    80.8
    71.62
    45
    15
    Los Angeles
    California
    42.5
    13.5%
    10
    7
    16.8%
    4.0%
    117
    82.6
    86.7
    86.1
    85.3
    88.9
    83.4
    80.6
    80.2
    68.7
    68
    58.4
    71.8
    70.32
    46
    37
    Houston
    Texas
    43.7
    16.6%
    10
    9.9
    9.4%
    3.7%
    0
    82.6
    81.8
    77
    71.8
    96.6
    79.3
    80.6
    70.1
    79.1
    52.3
    62.8
    77.4
    69.59
    47
    07
    Boston
    Massachusetts
    40.5
    12.7%
    10
    10.7
    15.5%
    5.5%
    0
    82.6
    92.7
    89.2
    83.8
    86.7
    83
    93.5
    92.8
    84.6
    63.8
    41.6
    74.9
    68.61
    48
    40
    Detroit
    Michigan
    40.9
    13.4%
    10
    10.6
    10.1%
    4.6%
    0
    93.4
    81.2
    79.4
    76
    78
    63.3
    15.9
    82.5
    88.1
    57.3
    60.6
    71.8
    66.85
    49
    05
    New York
    New York
    40.6
    12.4%
    10
    11.4
    16.4%
    4.1%
    180
    85.9
    87.7
    88
    84.2
    84.4
    83.4
    79
    91.9
    81
    57.4
    35
    74.3
    65.86
    50
    -
    New Orleans
    Louisiana
    40.9
    15.1%
    10
    10.4
    12.9%
    4.4%
    0
    91.2
    75.9
    75.8
    77
    83
    72.7
    81.6
    82.1
    93.3
    46.8
    38.8
    74.5
    63

    International Cities for the Best Work-Life Balance

    To understand how the U.S. performs worldwide, the table below includes 17 notable U.S. cities and 23 international cities.

    • Factors
      • Work Intensity
        • Hours Worked & Commute/Week
        • Overworked Population
        • Minimum Vacations Offered (Days)
        • Vacations Taken (Days)
        • Latest Unemployment
        • Multiple Jobholders
        • Paid Parental Leave (Days)
      • Society and Institutions
        • Social Spending
        • Healthcare
        • Access to Mental Healthcare
        • Inclusivity & Tolerance
      • City Livability
        • Affordability
        • Happiness, Culture & Leisure
        • City Safety & Stress
        • Outdoor Spaces
        • Air Quality
        • Wellness and Fitness
      • Covid-19
        • Covid Impact
        • Projected Unemployment
      Work Intensity
      Society and Institutions
      City Livability
      Covid-19
      2020
      2019
      City
      Country
      TOTAL SCORE
      01
      03
      Oslo
      Norway
      39.9
      5.0%
      25
      25
      3.8%
      8.9%
      707
      94.5
      100
      100
      81.9
      83.8
      90.1
      97.6
      100
      79.8
      82.1
      100
      92.4
      100
      02
      01
      Helsinki
      Finland
      42.1
      8.1%
      25
      30
      7.7%
      6.3%
      1,190
      97.9
      99.1
      90.1
      84.6
      86.6
      100
      97
      86.3
      80.8
      97.6
      88.2
      85
      95.8
      03
      -
      Copenhagen
      Denmark
      37.5
      6.6%
      25
      28
      6.6%
      7.3%
      364
      97.3
      92.5
      94.2
      90.1
      84.2
      92.2
      95.5
      73.3
      68
      88.4
      89.7
      89.1
      93.8
      04
      04
      Hamburg
      Germany
      41.6
      7.7%
      20
      30
      8.2%
      5.3%
      467
      94.6
      91.7
      96.8
      94.4
      86.3
      79.8
      98.8
      76.9
      73.8
      75.5
      96.5
      88.3
      93.2
      05
      06
      Berlin
      Germany
      41.3
      7.7%
      20
      30
      10.5%
      5.3%
      467
      94.6
      90.7
      96.8
      100
      90.6
      88.4
      90.8
      85.7
      70.8
      73.7
      86.1
      85.7
      90.3
      06
      02
      Munich
      Germany
      41.7
      7.7%
      20
      30
      5.3%
      5.3%
      467
      94.6
      92.4
      96.8
      93.1
      83.2
      83
      100
      74.3
      73.6
      71
      87.9
      92.4
      90.1
      07
      -
      Vienna
      Austria
      41.1
      9.3%
      25
      25
      11.3%
      4.3%
      481
      96.1
      95.9
      89.3
      93.2
      83.8
      77.9
      93.2
      91.8
      69
      88.7
      83
      83.8
      89.4
      08
      07
      Zurich
      Switzerland
      40.9
      11.8%
      20
      25
      3.2%
      7.7%
      98
      82.6
      98
      92.2
      76.1
      97.2
      92.6
      98.7
      87.9
      84.7
      93
      82.2
      95.3
      88.2
      09
      05
      Stockholm
      Sweden
      43.1
      6.5%
      25
      25
      8.5%
      8.6%
      490
      95.6
      96.8
      89.1
      96.7
      79.1
      87.6
      90
      90.4
      87
      90.9
      73.3
      84.2
      85.2
      10
      -
      Calgary
      Canada
      37.2
      11.8%
      10
      15
      14.4%
      6.2%
      364
      84.8
      95.3
      91.4
      84.5
      94.9
      83.5
      95
      80.8
      93.7
      89
      69.4
      74.6
      85
      11
      11
      Ottawa
      Canada
      37.3
      11.8%
      10
      15
      9.5%
      5.6%
      364
      84.8
      95
      91.4
      83.2
      88.4
      84.5
      93.5
      73.9
      93.7
      89.7
      68.5
      82.7
      84.6
      12
      -
      Amsterdam
      Netherlands
      36.1
      7.8%
      20
      24
      3.8%
      8.2%
      115
      83.8
      98.3
      93.3
      90.7
      78.9
      89.8
      95.1
      68
      65.5
      90.5
      67.4
      91.9
      83.9
      13
      10
      Vancouver
      Canada
      38.3
      11.8%
      10
      15
      12.8%
      6.7%
      364
      84.8
      95
      91.4
      84.5
      87.2
      83.8
      95.2
      97.3
      89.6
      85.3
      65.9
      78.3
      83.7
      14
      -
      Auckland
      New Zealand
      38.9
      14.8%
      20
      15
      4.0%
      7.3%
      126
      87.2
      92.2
      90
      89.2
      84.2
      83.5
      97.6
      84.9
      85.3
      70.9
      74.5
      90.7
      82.8
      15
      13
      Toronto
      Canada
      39.6
      11.8%
      10
      15
      13.9%
      5.6%
      364
      84.8
      95.1
      91.4
      84.7
      80.1
      90.3
      93.9
      88.2
      83.1
      85
      66.2
      77.7
      81.9
      16
      25
      Denver
      USA
      39.2
      12.3%
      10
      10.2
      7.8%
      5.6%
      0
      82.6
      88.7
      73.2
      84.6
      94
      79.9
      91
      89.8
      88.5
      75.1
      67.8
      79.9
      80.4
      17
      19
      Portland
      USA
      39.9
      13.7%
      10
      10.1
      11.1%
      5.4%
      0
      91.2
      89.3
      76.8
      85.7
      91.8
      80
      93.9
      88.8
      92
      69.9
      68.8
      78.2
      79.3
      18
      17
      San Diego
      USA
      39.4
      13.0%
      10
      9.7
      12.3%
      4.0%
      117
      82.6
      89.3
      86.1
      82.5
      93.9
      81.5
      95
      92.1
      75.9
      68.2
      63.8
      76.4
      79.3
      19
      39
      Tokyo
      Japan
      44.9
      20.6%
      10
      10
      3.2%
      3.6%
      770
      91.1
      98.3
      81.4
      42.4
      85.4
      58.6
      84
      57.7
      63.2
      78.7
      95
      95.5
      78.9
      20
      23
      Seattle
      USA
      41
      13.6%
      10
      10.4
      9.3%
      5.4%
      0
      82.6
      91.4
      79.1
      83.7
      96.2
      81.2
      98.4
      91.8
      88.9
      71.4
      66
      77.3
      78.8
      21
      15
      Sydney
      Australia
      40.4
      13.9%
      20
      14
      7.3%
      6.4%
      140
      85.6
      99.9
      93.2
      86
      87.6
      83.5
      99.2
      94.8
      89.1
      83.5
      56.7
      87.9
      77.9
      22
      20
      San Francisco
      USA
      41.8
      13.2%
      10
      9.7
      11.1%
      4.0%
      117
      82.6
      87.2
      86.1
      89.3
      97.6
      84.7
      92.9
      96.8
      85.3
      68.7
      57.6
      78.3
      76.6
      23
      37
      Atlanta
      USA
      40.9
      13.4%
      10
      10.2
      8.5%
      3.8%
      0
      85.9
      78.4
      85.3
      75.8
      97.5
      79.7
      85.8
      77.7
      75.9
      52.5
      64.9
      80
      75.4
      24
      18
      Melbourne
      Australia
      40
      13.9%
      20
      14
      7.3%
      6.4%
      140
      85.6
      98.8
      93.2
      85.9
      92.6
      95.7
      96.7
      84.5
      83.9
      84.2
      49.3
      86.6
      75.3
      25
      09
      Paris
      France
      45.1
      10.1%
      25
      30
      6.9%
      5.3%
      490
      100
      91.7
      93.2
      83.6
      79.2
      76.2
      82.3
      65.2
      56.4
      86.4
      62.8
      87.1
      74
      26
      -
      Washington
      USA
      41.3
      13.6%
      10
      9.4
      7.9%
      5.5%
      40
      86.9
      80.3
      88.3
      82.8
      91.9
      87
      88.2
      89.2
      85.3
      71.3
      55
      81.7
      73.9
      27
      29
      Chicago
      USA
      40.2
      12.6%
      10
      10.7
      12.0%
      5.2%
      0
      84.3
      85.6
      84
      81.9
      90.1
      83
      79.5
      92.2
      72.7
      60.4
      58.3
      75.5
      73.9
      28
      -
      Dublin
      Ireland
      43.5
      10.8%
      20
      21
      5.3%
      2.7%
      182
      79.6
      92.1
      90.8
      87.5
      71.8
      86.1
      87.6
      65
      82.2
      87.8
      54.5
      91.1
      73.4
      29
      24
      Las Vegas
      USA
      37.9
      12.1%
      10
      9.8
      16.4%
      3.8%
      0
      84.3
      79.7
      66.4
      81.7
      92.9
      77.4
      80.6
      81.2
      88
      58.4
      54.1
      65.2
      72.6
      30
      31
      Philadelphia
      USA
      40
      12.8%
      10
      10.7
      14.1%
      6.0%
      0
      90
      86
      78.9
      75.5
      85.2
      76.5
      77.9
      90
      75.9
      58.8
      60.8
      75.7
      72.6
      31
      12
      London
      UK
      45.8
      11.4%
      28
      25
      5.0%
      3.5%
      287
      89.5
      90.8
      96.1
      97.6
      76.8
      81.7
      84.7
      73.8
      73
      77.1
      54.5
      89.1
      72.5
      32
      -
      Madrid
      Spain
      43.5
      7.2%
      22
      30
      12.6%
      2.3%
      127
      93.1
      92.3
      88.5
      96.9
      70
      72
      88.2
      99.1
      69.7
      89.6
      43
      73.9
      72.4
      33
      34
      Cleveland
      USA
      39.2
      13.1%
      10
      10.9
      11.7%
      6.5%
      0
      90
      84.4
      78
      73.7
      87
      68.9
      52.6
      83.5
      75.3
      54
      67.5
      72.5
      72.4
      34
      33
      Miami
      USA
      40.9
      13.5%
      10
      9.2
      13.2%
      3.5%
      0
      92.4
      85.6
      79.1
      78.7
      81.1
      82.9
      81.3
      86
      89.7
      55.4
      56.8
      77.4
      72.2
      35
      08
      Barcelona
      Spain
      42.3
      7.2%
      22
      30
      12.8%
      2.3%
      127
      93.1
      92.1
      88.5
      96.5
      65.2
      67.8
      78.7
      79.3
      82.3
      87
      46.6
      73.6
      71.8
      36
      -
      Brussels
      Belgium
      42.7
      8.1%
      20
      24
      14.7%
      3.8%
      361
      98.1
      93.4
      86.6
      86
      86.8
      69.1
      62.7
      71.3
      65
      80.2
      50.1
      82.3
      70.5
      37
      26
      Los Angeles
      USA
      42.5
      13.5%
      10
      7
      16.8%
      4.0%
      117
      82.6
      86.7
      86.1
      85.3
      88.9
      83.4
      80.6
      80.2
      68.7
      68
      58.4
      71.8
      70.3
      38
      36
      Houston
      USA
      43.7
      16.6%
      10
      9.9
      9.4%
      3.7%
      0
      82.6
      81.8
      77
      71.8
      96.6
      79.3
      80.6
      70.1
      79.1
      52.3
      62.8
      77.4
      69.6
      39
      22
      Boston
      USA
      40.5
      12.7%
      10
      10.7
      15.5%
      5.5%
      0
      82.6
      92.7
      89.2
      83.8
      86.7
      83
      93.5
      92.8
      84.6
      63.8
      41.6
      74.9
      68.6
      40
      21
      New York
      USA
      40.6
      12.4%
      10
      11.4
      16.4%
      4.1%
      180
      85.9
      87.7
      88
      84.2
      84.5
      83.4
      79
      92
      81
      57.5
      35
      74.3
      65.9
      41
      32
      Singapore
      Singapore
      51.1
      25.1%
      7
      14
      2.8%
      2.7%
      119
      56.2
      88.6
      90.9
      48.2
      82.2
      67.6
      92
      74.3
      54.9
      78.3
      76.4
      96
      64.7
      42
      -
      New Orleans
      USA
      40.9
      15.1%
      10
      10.4
      12.9%
      4.4%
      0
      91.2
      76
      75.8
      77.1
      83
      72.7
      81.6
      82.1
      93.3
      46.8
      38.8
      74.5
      63
      43
      -
      Bangkok
      Thailand
      50.7
      20.2%
      6
      10
      0.9%
      3.7%
      90
      68
      51.8
      60.8
      56
      38.3
      60
      75.2
      46.3
      27.9
      92.7
      83.3
      100
      59.6
      44
      -
      Sao Paulo
      Brazil
      46
      12.3%
      10
      30
      13.5%
      4.7%
      181
      85.1
      47.3
      77.6
      60.5
      35
      65.4
      30.6
      57.9
      53.2
      64.4
      64.7
      75.2
      58
      45
      35
      Hong Kong
      China
      50.1
      29.9%
      7
      14
      3.8%
      3.7%
      70
      83.5
      83.2
      83.9
      52.6
      69.4
      37.4
      83
      81.8
      25
      100
      72.1
      93
      57.8
      46
      38
      Buenos Aires
      Argentina
      43
      19.9%
      14
      15
      11.5%
      10.0%
      92
      71.8
      47.8
      81.1
      69.6
      56.5
      66.4
      63.9
      77.3
      66
      69.9
      48
      78.2
      55.6
      47
      40
      Kuala Lumpur
      Malaysia
      52
      21.0%
      8
      12
      2.4%
      1.1%
      98
      15.9
      47.1
      15.9
      25
      78.3
      35
      69.5
      35
      34.8
      73
      82.1
      95.2
      53.1
      48
      14
      Budapest
      Hungary
      46
      4.2%
      20
      24.1
      3.9%
      1.4%
      1,127
      87.9
      68.9
      53
      48.1
      58.7
      42.8
      68.9
      85.7
      62.7
      72.6
      93.5
      91.2
      15.4
      49
      16
      Milan
      Italy
      43.7
      9.8%
      20
      21
      4.0%
      1.4%
      337
      97.2
      96.2
      86.5
      61.1
      58.4
      61.3
      74
      87.6
      44.9
      74.2
      51.2
      89.1
      12.1
      50
      -
      Seoul
      South Korea
      47.7
      23.1%
      15
      14
      5.3%
      1.7%
      93
      71.5
      90.2
      76.8
      48.2
      88.9
      49.7
      55.9
      81.1
      26.1
      78.5
      94.8
      93.7
      1

      Methodology

      The Best Cities for Work-Life Balance 2020 assesses a city’s implementation of smarter working policies and their capacity to simultaneously equip residents with the ability to enjoy their leisure time. In comparison to the 2019 edition, the expanded study also takes into account how COVID-19 has changed and continues to affect work-life balance in major cities around the world.

      City Selection

      As a company born and bred in Brooklyn, NY, we first evaluated the local working climate in 50 U.S. cities. Then, to understand how American cities compare on a global scale, an international study was conducted, including 17 notable U.S. cities and 33 international cities known for attracting professionals and families for their work opportunities and diverse lifestyle offerings. As the second installment of a continuous study, a shortlist of in-demand metropolises worldwide with sufficient, reliable, and relevant datasets were selected.

      This index is not a city livability index, nor does it intend to highlight the best cities to work. Instead, it is designed to be an indicator of how well cities strike a balance between work and life based on a series of indicators related to time management, access to welfare, city livability, and citizen well-being.

      Factors and Scoring

      The study focuses on three broad categories with the following factors outlined below which make a city successful at achieving a well-rounded work-life balance:

      • Work-Intensity: Hours Worked & Commute/Week, Overworked Population (%), Minimum Vacations Offered (Days), Vacations Taken (Days), Latest Unemployment (%), Multiple Jobholders (%), Paid Parental Leave (Days).
      • Society & Institutions: Social Spending (Score), Healthcare (Score), Access to Mental Healthcare (Score), Inclusivity & Tolerance (Score).
      • City Livability: Affordability (Score), Happiness, Culture & Leisure (Score), City Safety & Stress (Score), Green Spaces and Weather (Score), Air Quality (Score), Wellness and Fitness (Score).

      To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cities’ current and future work-life balance, the study also includes a COVID Impact (Score) and Projected Unemployment (Score).

      Where scores are out of 100, the higher the score, the better. For the total score, a value of 100 does not mean a city is perfect in terms of work-life balance and has zero room for improvement. Rather, it means that the city has the healthiest work-life balance out of all the cities in the index. On the other end of the spectrum, a score of 1 indicates that the city performs the poorest in comparison to the other cities in the study. However, this does not necessarily mean that the city has a poor work-life balance in the greater global context.

      The data collected was then analyzed for each factor, resulting in a weighted average to create a final score for each category. This was then aggregated into a final work-life balance score for each city. The scores for each category at a city-level (Work Intensity, Society & Institutions, City Livability) can be provided upon request.

      The final score for overall work-life balance was determined by calculating the sum of the weighted average score of all of the indicators.

      Work Intensity

      Hours Worked & Commute/Week

      The average number of hours a full-time employee spends working and commuting to and from their workplace per working week.

      Hours worked

      Employed persons include individuals undertaking full-time work as their main job. An employee is considered to work full-time if they work for 35 hours or more a week. US cities employ data at a Metropolitan Statistical Area level, while the latest country-level data was taken for all other cities.

      Sources: US Bureau of Labor Statistics – Current Employment Statistics survey (State & Metro Area), 2019; ILO-STATISTICS – Labour force survey, latest available data.

      Commuting time

      Commuting duration data is based on self-reported times gathered through surveys, and includes the mean travel time to and from work or school for all forms of transport. One-way commuting durations were multiplied by ten to get the estimated weekly commute times for a five-day work week.

      Sources: US Census Bureau – American Community Survey, 2017; Eurostat – Eurofond travel survey, 2015; Numbeo – Traffic Index‍; various media sources.

      Overworked Population (%)

      The percentage of full-time employees working more than 48 hours per working week. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommends a workweek of 40-hours and considers weekly work of over 48 hours "excessive".¹ For non-US cities, country-level data was used to evaluate the average working hours per week. For US cities, average number of hours of work was incorporated into the country-level data to approximate percentages on a city-level.

      Sources: ILO-STATISTICS – Labour force survey, latest available data; US Bureau of Labor Statistics – Current Employment Statistics survey (State & Metro Area), 2019.

      Minimum Vacations Offered (Days)

      The minimum number of compensated vacation days an employee is legally entitled to after at least one year of service. Data was taken at a national level for a full-time, five-day workweek (excluding public holidays). In the US, under the Fair Labor Standards Act, no such federal or state-level regulations exist that require employers to pay employees for time not worked, including holidays.² Despite this, time off agreements are often negotiated between employer and employee. Data for US cities is based on the average number of reported paid holiday days for a private industry employee after their first year of service (10 days per annum).³

      Sources: International Labour Organisation; European Commission – EURES Living and Working Conditions; Thomson Reuters – Practical Law database; Various national labor departments. Latest available data.

      Vacations Taken (Days)

      The average number of used paid vacation days offered to full-time employees in a single year. This section uses city-level data where available.

      For US cities, data was calculated by subtracting the unused vacation days from the average number of days offered. The percentage of unused vacation days in the US was sourced at a state-level. For non-US cities, country-level data was taken on the number of vacation days used. All cities use 2018 data, except for Zurich, Stockholm, Oslo, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Copenhagen, Vienna, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Dubai, and Brussels, which use 2017 data.

      Sources: US Travel Association – State-by-State Time Off, 2019; Expedia – Vacation Deprivation study, 2018/17; UBS – Prices and Earnings study, 2018.

      Unemployment (%)

      The most recently available unemployment rate for the metropolitan area or region. National figures were used in rare instances. Unemployed persons are considered those of the labor force who are jobless, looking for a job, and available for work.

      Subnational unemployment figures often take longer to report and are less available than national figures. As unemployment rates are seasonal and labor departments have their own standards for the regularity of reporting unemployment figures, so the most recently available data was used to offer a snapshot of the job market as close to mid-2020 as possible. Further details about the collection can be provided upon request.

      Sources: US Bureau of Labor Statistics – Local Area Unemployment Statistics, data as of September, 2020; Local, subnational and national government statistical departments, data as of September 2020.

      Multiple Jobholders (%)

      The percentage of employed people holding more than one job at any one time. The holding of more than one job at a time can be a sign of engaging in precarious work. Research has not concluded that high levels of multiple job-holding point directly to economic strain or exploitation. But in places where institutions and protections are weak, certain workers may be more exposed to the negative effects of such employment. We have included this indicator in our study to provide an oft-neglected angle on conditions for a work-life balance.

      Unfortunately, detailed geographical data on the number of multiple-jobholders is underreported and not regularly published, and some data presented here is dated (Brazil, for example). However, it was deemed more beneficial to report the data than to omit it, and therefore the latest available data compiled from official statistics and independent research was included. All US and Canadian data is at a state and province level, respectively, while other cities use national data. Values for Hong Kong and Bangkok are modelled estimates using national figures for the percentage of part-time workers as a proportion of the workforce.

      Sources: Eurostat – Job-holder survey, 2018; Bureau of Labor Statistics – Multiple-jobholding rates, 2015; Statistics Canada – Multiple jobholders, 2019; Singapore Ministry of Manpower – Labour Force report, 2018; Australian Department of Social Services – HILDA survey, 2019; Stats NZ – Household labour force survey, 2019; Statistics Korea – Economically Active Population survey, 2019; The World Bank – Malaysia Economic Monitor, 2019; Japan Labor Issues Journal – Atsushi Kawakami: “Who Holds Multiple Jobs?...”, 2019; Latin American Perspectives – “Precarious Work in Argentina 2003-2017”, 2020; United Nations – Economic and Social Council Brazil report, 2001.

      Paid Parental Leave (Days)

      The number of paid family leave from work days afforded to employees by law. The sum comprises the legislated number of days for paid maternal, paternal and parental leave, and reflects the number of days compensated, regardless of benefits provided or level of compensation. At the federal level, the US does not mandate paid leave for parents, but some states have recently passed relevant legislation (these include the states of California, New York, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia). National data is used, except for US cities, which use state-level data.

      Sources: OECD – Employment statistics database, latest available data; ILO – Maternity and paternity at work study, 2014; Thomson Reuters – Practical Law, 2020; Official local government websites.

      Society and Institutions

      Social Spending (Score)

      Government social expenditure as a percentage of national GDP, represented as a score. National data is taken, except for the US cities, which use state-level data. Social spending includes policy areas such as unemployment, housing, family, support for the elderly, health, and active labor market programmes.

      Sources: OECD – Social Expenditure SOCX, latest available data; Eurostat – Social protection statistics, 2016; Social Investment Portal – Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016; Tax Policy Center – State and Local General Expenditures, 2017; Bureau of Economic Analysis – GDP by state, 2017; Ministry of Finance – Asia Development Bank, 2017; Pew Trusts – Federal Spending in the States, 2014; Brazilian and Hong Kong media sources, 2018/15.

      Healthcare (Score)

      The measure of a city’s healthcare system based on access, quality and satisfaction. Country-level data was obtained from the Health Access and Quality (HAQ) for access and quality indicators, while US cities use state-level data for these indicators. Satisfaction survey results were taken at a city level.

      The preparedness or resilience of healthcare systems in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic was not assessed. Healthcare systems are, by design, meant to treat only a proportion of the population at a given time, as was popularly illustrated in the global “flatten the curve” rhetoric.

      Any inability to meet the healthcare needs of residents during an emergency of this magnitude cannot be put down to the quality of healthcare access alone. (Italy, one of the first and hardest hit countries, is world-renowned for its first-class public healthcare system). Any analysis must also take into account varying external factors, such as the timeliness and effectiveness of responses (both official policy and behavior from the wider community) to protect residents and avoid overburdening healthcare services.

      Sources: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation — Health Access and Quality Index, 2016; Numbeo – Healthcare Index, 2020.

      Access to Mental Healthcare (Score)

      The accessibility and effectiveness of governments in implementing mental health policies aimed to care for individuals with mental health illnesses. This factor uses national data on governance, access to treatment, and the environment necessary for treatment. This factor also incorporates suicide rates and city-level survey data on healthcare quality.

      Sources: EIU/Jannsen – Asia- Pacific Mental Health Integration Index, 2016; EIU/Jannsen – Europe Mental Health Integration Index, 2014; Institute for Health and Metrics Evaluation – Health Access and Quality Index, 2016; Numbeo – Healthcare Index, 2020; local statistics departments.

      Inclusivity & Tolerance (Score)

      The degree to which a city supports gender and LGBT+ equality, inclusivity and tolerance through legislation and opportunity. The score combines the following ‘Gender Equality’ (degree of gender parity), as well as ‘LGBT+’ (inclusiveness and tolerance) factors.

      Gender

      Gender equality scores were developed using data on the level of difference in economic opportunity and participation, educational attainment, health, and political empowerment between men and women. City-level data was used for US cities, with country-level data used for non-US cities.

      Sources: Economist – Glass Ceiling Index, 2020; World Economic Forum – Gender Gap Index, 2020; Council on Foreign Relations – Women's Workplace Equality Index, 2020; OECD – Social Institutions & Gender Index, 2019.

      LGBT+

      For LGBT+ scores, we looked at the comprehensiveness of equality and protection (an emphasis on work rights) legislation, health access, as well as political representation for the LGBT+ community. We also included the percentage of the population that identifies as LGBT+, as environments in which a higher number of citizens feel comfortable openly identifying as a minority is also a potential indicator of a tolerant and supportive community.

      Sources: SPARTACUS – Gay Travel Index, 2020; Gallup – Daily Tracking polls, 2015/2017; Out Leadership – State LGBT+ Business Climate Index, 2019; Local statistics departments, latest available data.

      City Livability

      Affordability (Score)

      Monthly living costs as a proportion of the average household income, after tax. A basket of estimated monthly costs includes: rent, basic utilities costs, groceries, internet connection, leisure activities, clothes, and eating out. A higher score indicates a higher level of remaining monthly income (if any) after accounting for these deductions.

      Sources: OECD – Employment Database, 2018; Numbeo – Cost of Living Index, 2020.

      Happiness, Culture & Leisure (Score)

      The degree to which residents are able to enjoy their environment after office hours, measured through the average perceived level of happiness at a national level as well as the accessibility and variety of a city’s cultural and lifestyle offerings.

      Happiness

      Score includes the average perceived level of happiness at a city level. In the rare absence of city-level data, national data was used. The score is calculated from survey responses evaluating the perceived happiness with one’s own life, as well as the degree of positive and negative effects a respondent experiences.

      Sources: Sustainable Development Solutions Network – World Happiness Report, 2020; Walethub – Happiest Cities, 2019.

      Culture & Leisure

      The vibrancy and variety of cultural and lifestyle offerings in a city. The score combines cultural city rankings, the number of persons employed in the cultural and creative industries, and the amount of leisure facilities and activities available, such as the number of sports stadiums, restaurants, parks, shops, entertainment and nightlife venues per capita. Cities with an exceptional number of activities were given supplementary points.

      Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis – State Arts and Cultural Production Employment, 2016; European Commission – Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor, 2019; Mori Foundation – Global Power City Index, 2018; TimeOut – ‘48 best cities in the world in 2019’; Wallethub – Funnest Cities in the US rankings, 2019; OSM Overpass Turbo API – Searches included: bars; clubs; pubs; restaurants; cafes; galleries; museums; and cinemas, latest data; TripAdvisor – Searches included: Nightlife, Museums, Concerts & Shows, Outdoor Activities, Nature & Parks, latest data; World Stadiums – Database, latest data.

      Happiness, Culture & Leisure (Score)

      The degree to which citizen’s feel safe and unburdened by city-induced stress. Both factors are equally weighted.

      Safety

      The degree of personal safety experienced by residents. The safety score combines data on violent crime rates, political violence, traffic deaths and perceived criminality.

      Sources: Economist Intelligence Unit – Safe Cities Index, 2019; Global Residence Index – STC Safety Index, 2019; Social Progress Imperative – Social Progress Index, 2019; Numbeo – Crime Index, latest data; National law enforcement databases.

      City Stress

      The degree to which a city is burdened by stress-inducing factors. The score is based on data on a city’s population density, transport and infrastructure, climate, and local economy.

      Sources: WalletHub – Stressed Cities, 2016; Zipjet – Stressful Cities Ranking, 2017.

      Green Spaces and Weather (Score)

      The prevalence and accessibility of a city’s urban green infrastructure as a score, including its proximity to residents and the percentage of land allocated to green space. Data on weather and daylight conditions that could affect the use of public outdoor spaces was also incorporated. This includes average temperatures, the annual number of rainy days, annual sunshine hours, and cloudlessness.

      Significant weighting is placed on the green spaces indicator, as the existence of favourable weather alone is not a condition for a good score in this section. Data is collected at a city level.

      Sources: United States Forest Service – iTree survey tool; The Trust for Public Land – ParkScore index, 2020; OECD – Green area survey, 2018; European Environmental Agency – Urban green infrastructure database, 2017; Weather Spark – Weather analysis data, 2020.

      Air Quality (Score)

      Annual median particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) pollution for the year 2019, represented as a score. Daily average data was taken across all days of a single year, with the median pollution level representing the overall score. Data was taken at a city level.

      Sources: AQICN – Air Quality Index historical database, 2019; World Health Organisation – Global Ambient Air Quality Database, 2018.

      Wellness and Fitness (Score)

      The general state of a community’s physical fitness and health as represented by a population’s average life expectancy, as well as levels of inactivity, obesity, and the number of fitness studios and gyms per capita. National data was used for life expectancy at birth, while US cities use city-level data. Adult obesity rates and the prevalence of physical inactivity were taken at a national level, with US cities using state level data. Data on the number of gyms per capita is taken at a city level.

      Sources: World Health Organisation – Global Health Observatory data repository, latest data; US Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Adult Physical Inactivity Prevalence, 2020; Opportunity Insights – US life expectancy data, 2016; The State of Childhood Obesity – Adult Obesity Rates, 2019; OSM Overpass Turbo API – Searches included: ‘leisure=fitness_centre’ and ‘leisure=sports_centre’.

      Covid Impact Factors

      COVID Impact (Score)

      The degree of social and economic impact on account of a location’s COVID-19-related response.

      To interpret the social impact, we included mobility reports comparing the change in a movement by driving, walking and transit in a specific city. The data includes the average percent change in these forms of movement between August and a January-baseline for the year 2020. We also included similar data on the change in visitor numbers to specific categories of location, such as workplace, transit station, retail stores. Cities showing a considerable percent shift in this movement data can be expected to have experienced heavy restriction or lockdown conditions in the month of August. Additionally, we included the rate of COVID-related deaths per 100k people as a measure of the human loss of life, as well as the psychological impact of disaster faced by a specific community. This data was taken at a national level, with US cities using state-level data. City-level data was also included on the number of implemented restrictions and public health measures (such as lockdowns,visa restrictions, and school and border closures), as well as whether these measures had been lifted by the time of research. To assess the potential economic impact, we also included economic forecasts on the projected GDP growth for 2020 at a national level.

      Sources: Apple – COVID-19 Mobility Trends Reports, data as of September 2020; Google – COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports, data as of September 2020; Center for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC COVID Data Tracker, data as of September 2020; European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control – Worldwide COVID-19 death data, data as of September 2020; International Monetary Fund – World Economic Outlook Report, June 2020; ACAPS – COVID-19 Government Measures Dataset, 2020.

      Projected Unemployment (Score)

      The projected percent change in employment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as a score. The projected unemployment rate for 2020 was compared to the unemployment rate of 2019. Both figures are taken from the IMF, with the inclusion of the metropolitan/regional-level data on latest available unemployment figures.

      Sources: Local statistical departments, data as of September, 2020; International Monetary Fund – World Economic Outlook Report, June 2020.

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