A master reader is an intelligent card reader that contains its own database of users and is capable of determining access without consulting with an access panel or another reader. These readers are self-contained units, ones that can grant or deny access to cardholders entirely on their own, which saves time and resources at points with high levels of activity, like front doors or elevators. Their databases must be updated each time there is a change in the user base, including new hires or terminations, so that the cards of these users grant the correct level of access as determined by system administrators. This feature is ideal at security checkpoints of high importance or in places that are physically removed from the rest of your space, including parking lots and front desks. Master readers can easily be combined with other security measures, including video verification and signature tablets. Each master reader may have one “slave” reader.