Cities with the Best Work-Life Balance 2022

By comparing data on work intensity, institutional support, legislation, and liveability, study ranks cities based on their success in promoting work-life balance to their citizens, in the context of rampant inflation and the fallout from the pandemic and war in Ukraine.

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At Kisi, we’re determined to promote positive working cultures. Since the pandemic began, we’ve experienced the difficulties of juggling our jobs and private lives, and have grown to appreciate the value of having a healthy balance between the two. As the pandemic winds down, its economic impact, combined with that of the war in Ukraine, is being felt around the world in the form of high inflation which is already affecting day-to-day life. Against this worrying backdrop, the onus is on companies - and governments - to take steps to establish a positive balance between work and life commitments for the mental well-being of employees.

In this year’s study, we set out to build on previous iterations by offering stimulating comparisons between previous and current results. We therefore studied the same cities as 2021 and 2019, all of which are renowned for their employment opportunities and lifestyle offerings. The results reveal how cities have compared over the last few years when vaccination rates were still low and mobility was more difficult. Rather than being a liveability index or a ranking of the best cities to work in, the study seeks to show which cities provide the healthiest work-life balance for their citizens.

The first category we analysed was each city’s work intensity. We started this by looking at the suitability of each city for remote working, a central feature of our lives nowadays, which we achieved by calculating the percentage of jobs that can be performed remotely. Then, we assessed the work intensity of each city by collecting data on overworking, holiday allowances and the number of vacation days taken. We also considered unemployment figures and the percentage of people working multiple jobs to understand how the economic fallout of the pandemic has affected the job market in each location. To capture the impact of inflation, which hinders the ability of citizens to enjoy a beneficial work-life balance, we have included the percentage of inflation in each city to identify where citizens are feeling the greatest pinch. Finally, we looked at the number of paid parental leave days on offer in each city.

Next, we examined the role of society and institutions in caring for city residents during this difficult period. To do this, we examined the impact of the pandemic and the support offered in each city, as well as the quality of healthcare, access to mental healthcare and the extent of gender and LGBT+ equality.

Finally, we considered factors related to liveability. We started by looking at the affordability of each city for its residents, a factor that is becoming a key issue around the world as inflation takes hold. Following this, we analysed cities’ happiness and access citizens have to culture and leisure activities outside of working hours. We then examined the safety of each city, as well as the number of outdoor spaces and air quality. To conclude, we considered the levels of wellness and fitness in each city.

The results reveal the cities that can be celebrated for directly and indirectly promoting a healthy work-life balance for their citizens through constructive social policies and urban infrastructure.

Top Cities in the Ranking for Work-Life Balance

Flag

1: Oslo

Norway

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2: Bern

Switzerland

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3: Helsinki

Finland

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4: Zurich

Switzerland

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5: Copenhagen

Denmark

Top Overworked Cities in the Ranking

Flag

1: Dubai

UAE

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2: Hong Kong

Hong Kong

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3: Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Flag

4: Singapore

Singapore

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5: Montevideo

Uruguay

2022 Work–Life Balance Index

The tables below display the cities around the world with the best work-life balance in order from highest to lowest. Each individual column is filterable, and the full methodology explaining how each factor was evaluated is at the bottom of the page.

  • Factors
    • Work Intensity
      • Remote Jobs
      • Overworked Population
      • Minimum Vacations Offered (Days)
      • Vacations Taken (Days)
      • Unemployment
      • Multiple Jobholders
      • Inflation
      • Paid Parental Leave (Days)
    • Society and Institutions
      • Covid Impact
      • Covid Support
      • Healthcare
      • Access to Mental Healthcare
      • Inclusivity & Tolerance
    • City Liveability
      • Affordability
      • Happiness, Culture & Leisure
      • City Safety
      • Outdoor Spaces
      • Air Quality
      • Wellness and Fitness
    Work Intensity
    Society and Institutions
    City Liveability
    2022
    2021
    City
    Country
    TOTAL SCORE
    01
    2
    Oslo
    Norway
    41.72%
    11.20%
    25
    25
    94.7
    9.10%
    6.47%
    707
    88.2
    93
    100
    85
    93.2
    59.4
    88.8
    86.5
    95.6
    97.5
    65.7
    100
    02
    -
    Bern
    Switzerland
    44.86%
    11.40%
    20
    25
    99.8
    7.60%
    1.80%
    98
    82.2
    91.4
    99.6
    78.6
    94.6
    69.9
    100
    91.8
    87.1
    100
    69.1
    99.46
    03
    1
    Helsinki
    Finland
    38.92%
    12.70%
    25
    30
    89.3
    6.30%
    4.79%
    1,190
    85
    99.7
    96.7
    73
    93.9
    65
    96.3
    94.9
    86
    97
    68.3
    99.24
    04
    3
    Zurich
    Switzerland
    44.86%
    11.90%
    20
    25
    99.2
    7.60%
    1.80%
    98
    82
    91.4
    99.2
    78.6
    87.5
    71.6
    91.5
    92.8
    84
    96.2
    68.7
    96.33
    05
    5
    Copenhagen
    Denmark
    41.42%
    10.50%
    25
    28
    94.8
    7.60%
    5.18%
    364
    84.5
    98.5
    94.8
    77.6
    95.2
    65.3
    92.5
    95.7
    75.5
    95.1
    66.3
    96.21
    06
    -
    Geneva
    Switzerland
    44.86%
    11.90%
    20
    25
    95.2
    7.60%
    1.80%
    98
    79.2
    91.4
    99.1
    78.6
    94.4
    70.7
    100
    85.4
    92
    96.8
    67.7
    95.82
    07
    6
    Ottawa
    Canada
    37.81%
    10.10%
    10
    16
    95.8
    5.60%
    6.46%
    364
    78.5
    87
    96.7
    92.4
    93.5
    70.7
    81.4
    84.8
    97
    99.2
    68.7
    95.51
    08
    10
    Sydney
    Australia
    38.79%
    9.70%
    20
    14
    95.9
    6.40%
    6.46%
    140
    79.5
    73.9
    99
    67.4
    91.8
    73.3
    87.7
    77.6
    97.9
    98
    70.5
    94.04
    09
    -
    Stuttgart
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.70%
    20
    26
    95.2
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    74
    91.5
    93.8
    82
    91.6
    79.3
    85.5
    78.7
    90.8
    95.8
    67
    93.79
    10
    7
    Munich
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.90%
    20
    26
    95.6
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    74.6
    91.5
    95.4
    82
    92.8
    71.1
    87
    88.5
    78.4
    95.8
    67.6
    93.65
    11
    4
    Stockholm
    Sweden
    44.20%
    12.70%
    25
    25
    91
    7.90%
    5.74%
    490
    76
    98.9
    96
    77.1
    97.7
    68.9
    88.1
    81.2
    88.5
    94.6
    68.5
    93.31
    12
    15
    Melbourne
    Australia
    38.79%
    9.70%
    20
    14
    94.5
    6.40%
    6.46%
    140
    78.7
    73.9
    98.3
    67.4
    91.8
    75.5
    95.4
    72.2
    91.3
    97.8
    74.7
    92.76
    13
    9
    Amsterdam
    Netherlands
    41.55%
    8.60%
    20
    24
    95.4
    8.10%
    8.55%
    114.8
    76.4
    90.8
    95.6
    85.1
    92.8
    67.8
    86.3
    84.2
    75.7
    94.4
    67.7
    92.62
    14
    23
    Tokyo
    Japan
    36.52%
    15.40%
    10
    25.5
    96.2
    3.60%
    0.89%
    770
    91.6
    84.2
    99.3
    84
    68.5
    65.9
    73.6
    92.5
    76.3
    90.8
    77.5
    92.47
    15
    -
    Leipzig
    Germany
    36.73%
    12.50%
    20
    26
    93.5
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    74.5
    91.5
    94.8
    82
    93.2
    69.2
    85.5
    70
    88.7
    96.5
    68
    92.45
    16
    8
    Vancouver
    Canada
    37.81%
    10.10%
    10
    16
    93.5
    6.70%
    6.46%
    364
    77
    87
    96.8
    92.4
    93.5
    66.1
    79.6
    79.2
    85.6
    99.7
    64.1
    92.23
    17
    16
    Auckland
    New Zealand
    36.25%
    10.20%
    20
    13
    96.2
    7.30%
    9.14%
    126
    87
    87.4
    92.3
    76.6
    100
    63.1
    84.5
    75.2
    84.9
    97.8
    65.1
    92.09
    18
    11
    Hamburg
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.70%
    20
    26
    90.6
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    73.1
    91.5
    94.9
    82
    93.7
    74.5
    79.9
    72.4
    80.8
    95.8
    77.8
    91.79
    19
    14
    Toronto
    Canada
    37.81%
    10.10%
    10
    16
    90.4
    5.60%
    6.46%
    364
    75.3
    87
    97.2
    92.4
    93.5
    73
    90.1
    77.3
    90.4
    97.2
    65.6
    91.12
    20
    -
    Frankfurt (am Main)
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.60%
    20
    26
    92.3
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    73.1
    91.5
    94.7
    82
    93.3
    78.4
    85.5
    70
    81.1
    95.6
    66.9
    91.06
    21
    -
    Dusseldorf
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.50%
    20
    26
    90.1
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    72.1
    91.5
    94.8
    82
    93.7
    79.2
    85.5
    75.8
    81.4
    96.2
    65.3
    90.92
    22
    17
    Berlin
    Germany
    36.73%
    12.00%
    20
    26
    86.3
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    70.2
    91.5
    92.9
    82
    95.6
    76
    93.8
    74.7
    81.5
    94.6
    86.7
    90.83
    23
    -
    Bremen
    Germany
    36.73%
    10.80%
    20
    26
    85.1
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    69.4
    91.5
    94.8
    82
    95.9
    68.5
    85.5
    72.9
    87.9
    97.6
    70.3
    90.73
    24
    -
    Liverpool
    UK
    43.50%
    12.80%
    28
    21
    94
    3.50%
    6.35%
    287
    75.6
    80.4
    98
    83.8
    91.2
    69.1
    82.7
    71.3
    75.9
    98.5
    62.7
    90.68
    25
    -
    Glasgow
    UK
    43.50%
    12.10%
    28
    21
    94.5
    3.50%
    6.35%
    287
    75.5
    80.4
    94.8
    83.8
    94.7
    74.4
    82.7
    71.4
    72.5
    98.1
    64.1
    90.68
    26
    -
    Cologne
    Germany
    36.73%
    11.10%
    20
    26
    86.8
    4.80%
    6.26%
    466.9
    70
    91.5
    94.2
    82
    99.9
    70.2
    85.5
    70.2
    85.9
    95.4
    68.3
    90.1
    27
    20
    London
    UK
    43.50%
    13.80%
    28
    21
    93.2
    3.50%
    6.35%
    287
    73.5
    80.4
    94.6
    83.8
    93.4
    63.4
    89.5
    66.3
    79.6
    95
    78.2
    89.74
    28
    27
    Paris
    France
    37.74%
    13.80%
    25
    27
    88
    5.10%
    4.21%
    490
    68.3
    90.8
    95.9
    79.3
    91.7
    61.3
    84.9
    61.2
    77.4
    93.1
    100
    89.73
    29
    -
    Graz
    Austria
    36.69%
    12.50%
    25
    25
    88.4
    4.40%
    6.57%
    70
    70.8
    87.8
    93.4
    77.3
    94.3
    66.3
    89.4
    84.8
    89.1
    96.1
    65.9
    89.4
    30
    13
    Calgary
    Canada
    37.81%
    10.10%
    10
    16
    88.7
    6.20%
    6.46%
    364
    75.7
    87
    97
    92.4
    93.5
    79.4
    78.7
    73.6
    77.3
    99.4
    65.9
    89.38
    31
    -
    Manchester
    UK
    43.50%
    12.90%
    28
    21
    94
    3.50%
    6.35%
    287
    75.1
    80.4
    95.5
    83.8
    91.2
    69.3
    82.7
    62.7
    76.4
    97.4
    63.3
    89.1
    32
    29
    Seattle
    USA
    42.28%
    13.10%
    10
    8.9
    94.8
    5.40%
    9.02%
    0
    85.6
    86.4
    89.9
    65.7
    94.7
    88.6
    90.7
    59.7
    95.6
    99.2
    64.5
    88.38
    33
    26
    Portland
    USA
    38.49%
    12.50%
    10
    8.6
    94.8
    5.40%
    8.27%
    0
    84.6
    86.3
    89.3
    66.8
    95
    74
    86.4
    62.5
    96.1
    99.8
    63.9
    88.2
    34
    12
    Vienna
    Austria
    36.69%
    12.50%
    25
    25
    81.3
    4.40%
    6.57%
    480.9
    68.4
    87.8
    93.8
    77.3
    94.1
    66.2
    83.7
    85
    86.7
    94.5
    73.9
    88.17
    35
    -
    Minneapolis
    USA
    41.14%
    13.00%
    10
    9
    97.2
    7.70%
    8.11%
    0
    85
    85
    91.6
    66.6
    92.6
    76.8
    88
    59.3
    100
    96.7
    63.1
    88.09
    36
    24
    Salt Lake City
    USA
    43.34%
    13.30%
    10
    8.5
    98.2
    6.50%
    9.81%
    0
    90.6
    80.7
    88
    66
    87.6
    90.1
    84.4
    65.1
    89.4
    97.1
    64.9
    87.83
    37
    19
    Dublin
    Ireland
    38.71%
    12.70%
    20
    21
    92.6
    2.70%
    5.00%
    182
    78.7
    85.7
    86.6
    70.6
    89.1
    61.5
    89.9
    76.5
    73.2
    97.7
    67
    87.64
    38
    31
    Boston
    USA
    44.35%
    12.30%
    10
    9.2
    95
    5.50%
    6.39%
    0
    78.9
    82
    90.7
    68.2
    97.1
    74.6
    86.3
    66.1
    96.7
    96.4
    65
    87.57
    39
    37
    San Francisco
    USA
    44.76%
    12.90%
    10
    8.3
    95.9
    4.00%
    6.40%
    117
    83.3
    93.9
    86.5
    70.9
    97.2
    80.5
    93.1
    55.9
    91.4
    97.8
    62.5
    87.34
    40
    21
    Brussels
    Belgium
    42.34%
    12.90%
    20
    24
    87.8
    4.30%
    6.53%
    361.2
    70
    100
    94.4
    81.5
    93.1
    67.4
    77.3
    69.9
    80.2
    94.1
    68.4
    87.18
    41
    33
    Washington
    USA
    49.77%
    12.90%
    10
    8.1
    95.4
    5.50%
    7.06%
    40
    81.3
    83.4
    86.6
    67.8
    99.4
    78.4
    88.2
    56
    95.5
    97.2
    65.5
    87.1
    42
    22
    Madrid
    Spain
    31.69%
    13.30%
    22
    30
    82.6
    2.20%
    7.11%
    126.7
    70.1
    71.2
    97.9
    64.2
    97.5
    66.3
    81.4
    74.1
    84.2
    94.4
    72.9
    86.85
    43
    -
    Omaha
    USA
    38.90%
    12.20%
    10
    8.9
    97.3
    7.70%
    9.22%
    0
    87.1
    85.6
    89.5
    66.4
    87.8
    75.1
    82.9
    60.6
    85.7
    97.3
    59.8
    86.01
    44
    34
    San Diego
    USA
    39.52%
    12.50%
    10
    8.3
    94.5
    4.00%
    9.14%
    117
    83
    92.6
    88.6
    66.6
    93
    80.7
    86.5
    66.2
    91.5
    94.2
    62.5
    85.77
    45
    18
    Singapore
    Singapore
    52.06%
    16.90%
    7
    12
    98.2
    2.70%
    4.49%
    119
    87.9
    95.1
    93.6
    62.1
    69
    65.9
    77.6
    100
    74.1
    90
    72.9
    85.66
    46
    28
    Denver
    USA
    42.58%
    12.40%
    10
    8.7
    95.6
    5.60%
    7.71%
    0
    84.1
    86.2
    88.1
    66.7
    92
    83.2
    83.3
    60
    86.3
    95.8
    65.7
    85.63
    47
    -
    Virginia Beach
    USA
    34.64%
    11.70%
    10
    9.1
    95.8
    5.20%
    9.39%
    0
    85
    84.4
    87.9
    67.1
    89.9
    85.8
    82.4
    60.3
    85.8
    97.1
    60.2
    85.3
    48
    -
    Raleigh
    USA
    41.30%
    12.50%
    10
    9.1
    96.7
    5.00%
    9.39%
    0
    85.2
    84.3
    88.7
    67.5
    85.5
    91.8
    85
    65.9
    83.2
    95.4
    61.4
    85.29
    49
    -
    Sacramento
    USA
    40.34%
    12.20%
    10
    8.3
    93.9
    4.00%
    8.27%
    117
    77.5
    93.1
    88
    66.6
    93
    70.4
    83
    58.8
    87.7
    98.3
    62
    84.94
    50
    25
    Barcelona
    Spain
    31.69%
    13.10%
    22
    30
    82.5
    2.20%
    7.11%
    126.7
    69.5
    71.2
    97
    64.2
    97.5
    65.3
    79.8
    68.5
    83.3
    92.5
    69.6
    84.93
    51
    -
    Lisbon
    Portugal
    33.16%
    14.70%
    22
    -
    89.3
    4.00%
    4.17%
    366.8
    74.2
    71.7
    89.5
    76.6
    94.8
    58.4
    70.7
    72.8
    86.6
    96.6
    65.2
    84.88
    52
    -
    Des Moines
    USA
    42.66%
    13.40%
    10
    8.9
    95.9
    8.60%
    9.22%
    0
    82.3
    89
    91.2
    66.3
    89.9
    77.5
    83.9
    59.7
    86.1
    96.8
    59.3
    84.77
    53
    -
    Honolulu
    USA
    35.43%
    11.80%
    10
    8.5
    95.8
    5.70%
    8.27%
    30
    74
    85.7
    89.1
    68.1
    93.5
    58.7
    85
    57.1
    92.3
    98
    61.4
    84.62
    54
    32
    Budapest
    Hungary
    30.92%
    14.40%
    20
    24.1
    97.5
    1.20%
    11.21%
    1,127
    74.8
    81.1
    68.5
    68.1
    74.6
    64.1
    64.7
    72
    82.1
    92.7
    62.5
    84.56
    55
    -
    Colorado Springs
    USA
    40.31%
    11.90%
    10
    8.7
    95.3
    5.60%
    9.81%
    0
    81.1
    85.8
    85
    65.7
    91.4
    86.2
    82.5
    62.4
    80.8
    96.9
    66.2
    84.56
    56
    -
    Tampa
    USA
    39.94%
    12.50%
    10
    9.1
    96.4
    3.50%
    11.75%
    0
    79.8
    80.7
    87.2
    67.2
    88.8
    71.4
    81.2
    60.8
    82.3
    97.9
    61.8
    84.31
    57
    -
    Kansas City
    USA
    39.48%
    11.70%
    10
    8.8
    96.3
    5.80%
    9.22%
    0
    83.2
    83.5
    88.9
    67
    85
    82.6
    76.1
    39.8
    96.7
    97.2
    58.6
    84.27
    58
    -
    Charlotte
    USA
    37.87%
    12.50%
    10
    9.1
    95.6
    5.00%
    9.39%
    0
    83.1
    84.4
    88.2
    66.6
    86.6
    90.3
    82.4
    60.1
    86.5
    95.7
    60.9
    84.24
    59
    38
    New York
    USA
    41.96%
    11.90%
    10
    11.4
    93.3
    4.10%
    6.11%
    180
    66.3
    90.9
    85.5
    68.1
    94.4
    61.8
    91.5
    62.4
    90.7
    96.5
    64.8
    84.23
    60
    36
    Atlanta
    USA
    40.39%
    12.60%
    10
    8.7
    96.2
    3.80%
    11.69%
    0
    84.6
    81.7
    86.1
    66.9
    86.7
    83
    82.9
    51.6
    92.2
    95.6
    59.9
    84.06
    61
    -
    Milwaukee
    USA
    36.48%
    12.10%
    10
    9.2
    96.4
    7.60%
    8.42%
    0
    82.3
    84.3
    87.1
    66.9
    89.4
    75.1
    81.3
    48.7
    88.6
    96.9
    60.8
    83.89
    62
    -
    Austin
    USA
    45.51%
    13.50%
    10
    8.5
    96.7
    3.70%
    8.71%
    0
    81.9
    82.3
    87.2
    67.5
    87.4
    95.2
    85.4
    65.5
    77.4
    96.4
    56.7
    83.67
    63
    39
    Milan
    Italy
    34.99%
    13.20%
    20
    21
    91.4
    1.40%
    5.79%
    336.7
    63.3
    84.7
    94.2
    73.1
    82
    54
    70.4
    63
    81.9
    91.5
    78.3
    83.66
    64
    -
    Pittsburgh
    USA
    36.82%
    12.00%
    10
    9.2
    92.7
    6.00%
    7.19%
    0
    80.2
    85.1
    89.5
    66.8
    86.6
    75.3
    83.9
    62.3
    91.8
    95.5
    60.5
    83.63
    65
    -
    Jacksonville
    USA
    36.61%
    12.50%
    10
    9.1
    96.6
    3.50%
    9.39%
    0
    78
    80.3
    87.7
    66.4
    89.2
    89.5
    77.6
    53
    84.1
    97
    61.7
    83.33
    66
    -
    Nashville
    USA
    36.41%
    13.50%
    10
    8.3
    97.4
    4.30%
    9.02%
    0
    80
    80.7
    84.4
    67.2
    84.9
    75.7
    79.6
    57.3
    98
    95.9
    58.2
    83.25
    67
    -
    Cincinnati
    USA
    36.20%
    12.40%
    10
    9.4
    95.5
    6.50%
    8.42%
    0
    79.5
    84.8
    86.6
    66.6
    85.2
    84.9
    76.6
    56.2
    95.4
    95.4
    57.9
    83.15
    68
    -
    Columbus
    USA
    39.54%
    12.70%
    10
    9.4
    95.3
    6.50%
    8.42%
    0
    81
    85.1
    88.3
    66.4
    87.2
    90.7
    77.8
    54.7
    86.6
    95.6
    58.8
    83.05
    69
    43
    Chicago
    USA
    39.18%
    12.50%
    10
    10.7
    93.3
    5.20%
    7.35%
    0
    79.3
    85.7
    86.4
    68
    90.6
    84.1
    90.2
    47.6
    90
    95.5
    61.3
    82.92
    70
    40
    Miami
    USA
    36.70%
    13.00%
    10
    9.2
    96.1
    3.50%
    10.19%
    0
    77.3
    78
    85.7
    67.2
    89.1
    65.3
    87
    55.6
    83.1
    98
    62.1
    82.83
    71
    -
    Baltimore
    USA
    41.55%
    12.00%
    10
    8.4
    94.6
    5.30%
    9.48%
    0
    76.2
    82.2
    90
    69.1
    92
    84.1
    77.2
    40.3
    92
    96.1
    60.2
    82.77
    72
    35
    Philadelphia
    USA
    40.11%
    12.50%
    10
    9.2
    93.3
    6.00%
    7.71%
    0
    78.6
    85.2
    87.7
    66.8
    88.3
    74.9
    83.8
    44.5
    94.1
    95.6
    60.9
    82.31
    73
    -
    Indianapolis
    USA
    35.96%
    13.20%
    10
    8.8
    98.3
    5.50%
    8.42%
    0
    82.3
    84.5
    87.8
    66.8
    87.8
    82.2
    74.1
    52
    82.8
    94.8
    55.9
    82.08
    74
    -
    Tucson
    USA
    37.29%
    11.30%
    10
    9
    95.5
    4.00%
    9.81%
    0
    77
    87.8
    84.2
    67.7
    87.9
    68.6
    78.3
    55.7
    76.3
    97
    61.7
    81.85
    75
    42
    Cleveland
    USA
    31.31%
    12.40%
    10
    9.4
    94.8
    6.50%
    8.42%
    0
    80.8
    84.8
    90.4
    66.6
    86.1
    81.6
    70.7
    49.8
    87.3
    95.5
    57.4
    81.81
    76
    -
    Oklahoma City
    USA
    37.34%
    12.40%
    10
    8.3
    97.5
    4.20%
    8.71%
    0
    82.8
    80.9
    87.5
    65.6
    82.3
    83.5
    75.6
    56.5
    77.4
    95.7
    55.3
    81.75
    77
    -
    Dallas
    USA
    39.69%
    13.80%
    10
    8.5
    95.2
    3.70%
    8.63%
    0
    83.7
    82
    85.7
    67.5
    84.6
    99
    81.3
    58
    77.6
    96.6
    56.4
    81.74
    78
    46
    Los Angeles
    USA
    39.09%
    12.80%
    10
    7
    92.6
    4.00%
    7.78%
    117
    75.1
    91.7
    85.6
    66.5
    94.3
    78.9
    89.7
    58.9
    86
    93.4
    63.3
    81.62
    79
    -
    Phoenix
    USA
    38.88%
    13.30%
    10
    9
    96.3
    4.00%
    10.73%
    0
    77.6
    87.3
    86.4
    67
    88
    85.2
    77.8
    56.6
    74.9
    95.9
    61.8
    81.46
    80
    -
    San Antonio
    USA
    37.71%
    13.00%
    10
    8.5
    95.2
    3.70%
    8.71%
    0
    79
    81.1
    87.2
    67.5
    85
    89.1
    77.4
    56.8
    77.6
    97.3
    57.1
    81.46
    81
    -
    Tulsa
    USA
    35.13%
    13.20%
    10
    8.3
    96.9
    4.20%
    8.71%
    0
    82.5
    80.6
    85.7
    65.6
    82.6
    87.4
    73.8
    53.6
    85.1
    95.9
    55.2
    81.4
    82
    -
    Wichita
    USA
    33.54%
    12.70%
    10
    8.9
    96.4
    6.20%
    9.22%
    0
    76.5
    83.4
    84.1
    66.1
    84.7
    82
    75.6
    54.4
    83.1
    97.3
    56.4
    80.87
    83
    -
    Louisville
    USA
    33.01%
    13.00%
    10
    9
    95.2
    5.20%
    9.02%
    0
    76.4
    80.5
    84.4
    67
    87.3
    78.1
    75.1
    53.6
    90.4
    95.4
    57.6
    80.78
    84
    -
    Detroit
    USA
    35.07%
    12.50%
    10
    9.1
    93.6
    4.60%
    7.76%
    0
    74.4
    84.4
    84.6
    66.5
    89.2
    75.5
    79.4
    37.4
    89.4
    98.1
    58.4
    80.36
    85
    -
    Albuquerque
    USA
    35.72%
    11.60%
    10
    8.1
    93.1
    3.90%
    9.81%
    0
    73.3
    85.7
    84.6
    66.6
    89.9
    84.1
    78.2
    41
    87.1
    96.4
    58.8
    79.91
    86
    -
    El Paso
    USA
    34.83%
    11.50%
    10
    8.5
    93.3
    3.70%
    8.71%
    0
    72.5
    81.1
    85.1
    67.5
    84.6
    84.5
    77.7
    68.4
    77.4
    95.3
    56.2
    79.9
    87
    44
    Houston
    USA
    37.33%
    13.70%
    10
    8.5
    92.8
    3.70%
    8.15%
    0
    73.9
    81.9
    87.5
    67.5
    83.7
    100
    81
    50.4
    84.7
    97
    57.2
    79.89
    88
    30
    Seoul
    South Korea
    37.00%
    13.90%
    15
    14
    95.6
    1.70%
    4.86%
    93
    85.7
    82.6
    97.2
    75.1
    78.5
    63
    63.1
    81.8
    85.4
    71.7
    72.3
    79.71
    89
    -
    Las Vegas
    USA
    30.41%
    12.50%
    10
    8.4
    92.1
    3.80%
    9.81%
    0
    78.2
    85.2
    82.4
    65.7
    90.3
    82
    84.7
    51.1
    84
    95.6
    57.4
    79.47
    90
    41
    New Orleans
    USA
    41.57%
    13.30%
    10
    8.9
    93.8
    4.40%
    8.71%
    0
    69.4
    84.3
    83.7
    67.8
    86.5
    69.2
    76.7
    43.4
    85.5
    98.6
    56.9
    79.11
    91
    -
    St. Louis
    USA
    37.59%
    12.80%
    10
    8.8
    95.1
    5.80%
    9.00%
    0
    79.6
    83.5
    90.7
    66.7
    85
    83.4
    75.7
    43.9
    94.1
    81.7
    57.9
    77.15
    92
    -
    Memphis
    USA
    31.81%
    13.20%
    10
    8.3
    93.5
    4.30%
    9.02%
    0
    77
    81
    77.7
    67.2
    84.2
    79.4
    79.2
    37.3
    83
    97
    57.7
    77.12
    93
    45
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong
    40.27%
    17.90%
    7
    12
    95.8
    3.70%
    2.85%
    70
    78.6
    84.6
    78.1
    100
    73.3
    54.7
    56.4
    85.8
    82.2
    81.8
    81.1
    77.11
    94
    -
    Montevideo
    Uruguay
    27.29%
    16.30%
    20
    -
    87.4
    4.70%
    17.82%
    0
    69
    80
    74.4
    64.6
    81.4
    52.4
    50
    56.2
    83.6
    98.5
    62.3
    74.59
    95
    48
    Buenos Aires
    Argentina
    28.39%
    8.80%
    10
    15
    86.3
    10.00%
    107.41%
    92
    63.6
    74.2
    65.2
    70.2
    83.9
    57.4
    74.3
    38.8
    82.5
    95.6
    60.6
    73.15
    96
    49
    Bangkok
    Thailand
    16.84%
    15.10%
    6
    10
    99.2
    3.70%
    3.46%
    90
    85.2
    88.9
    75.7
    79.7
    73.5
    50
    65.8
    27.8
    70.1
    84
    65.4
    70.73
    97
    47
    Sao Paulo
    Brazil
    25.65%
    11.80%
    10
    30
    79.6
    4.70%
    16.39%
    181
    61.9
    72.9
    62.5
    50
    79.5
    55.5
    75.8
    17.4
    76.9
    88
    61.9
    66.57
    98
    50
    Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    30.70%
    17.10%
    8
    12
    94.9
    1.10%
    2.56%
    98
    78.1
    77.3
    66.7
    74.3
    57
    70.5
    59.5
    47.2
    62.2
    84.8
    59.7
    66.02
    99
    -
    Dubai
    UAE
    28.89%
    23.40%
    30
    27
    100
    10.00%
    6.89%
    45
    100
    50
    69.4
    52.2
    50
    78
    79.2
    97.9
    50
    50
    58.6
    61.23
    100
    -
    Cape Town
    South Africa
    26.06%
    14.80%
    15
    -
    50
    3.50%
    10.11%
    0
    50
    79.1
    50
    65
    89.7
    71.6
    59.6
    1
    87.6
    94.5
    50
    50

    Methodology

    The Cities with the Best Work-Life Balance 2022 uses data to identify the best cities for work-life balance based on Work Intensity, Society and Institutions, and City Liveability. The study considers over 130 data points covering a range of indicators to highlight the most and least overworked cities around the world.

    City Selection

    The city selection consists of 51 US cities, as well as 49 global cities that were shortlisted for analysis as global economic hubs.

    Data Collection

    The data for this study was sourced from international organisations, NGO reports, open access datasets, public surveys and crowdsourcing platforms. Significant outliers and missing data at city level were inferred from national statistics.

    Factors and Scoring

    The study was divided into three categories: Work Intensity, Society and Institutions, and City Liveability.

    • Work Intensity: Remote Jobs (%), Overworked Population (%), Minimum Vacations Offered (Days), Vacations Taken (Days), Unemployment (Score), Multiple Jobholders (%), Inflation (%), Paid Parental Leave (Days).

    • Society and Institutions: Covid Impact (Score), Covid Support (Score), Healthcare (Score), Access to Mental Healthcare (Score), Inclusivity & Tolerance (Score).

    • City Livability: Affordability (Score), Happiness, Culture & Leisure (Score), City Safety (Score), Outdoor Spaces (Score), Air Quality (Score), Wellness and Fitness (Score).

    Multiple indicators were used as components when scoring each factor. The underlying indicators were first standardised using a Z-Score [z = (x-μ)/σ; μ=indicator mean; σ=indicator standard deviation] normalisation procedure. The final score was computed as a weighted average of the component Z-Scores, and the resulting score normalised to a scale of 50 to 100 using min-max normalisation [(value - min)/(max-min)*50+50]. The floor of 50 for the scale was chosen to emphasise that the minimum score does not imply the absence of the infrastructures under analysis, as the position is relative to that of other cities in the ranking.

    Below you can find a detailed description of each factor within the study and the sources used:

    Work Intensity

    Remote Jobs (%)

    The percentage of jobs that can be performed remotely in each city, and the feasibility of working at home for all occupations. A higher percentage reflects a city with a higher number of remote job opportunities and a better infrastructure to support working from home.

    Sources: Journal of Public Economics; World Bank.

    Overworked Population (%)

    The percentage of full-time employees working more than 48 hours per working week in each city. A higher percentage reflects a city with a greater amount of its population working overtime.

    Sources: Eurostat; US Bureau of Labor Statistics.

    Minimum Vacations Offered (Days)

    The minimum number of compensated vacation days an employee is legally entitled to after at least one year of service. Data was taken at a national level for a full-time, five-day workweek (excluding public holidays). A higher score reflects a city with a higher amount of vacation days offered to employees.

    Sources: European Commission; International Labour Organisation (ILO); national labour departments; Thomson Reuters.

    Vacations Taken (Days)

    The average number of paid vacation days taken by full-time employees in a single year.

    Sources: proprietary survey data; UBS; US Travel Association.

    Unemployment (Score)

    A score that reflects the unemployment rate for the metropolitan area or region in the first quarter of 2021. A higher score reflects a city with a lower level of unemployment.

    Sources: Official local statistics.

    Multiple Jobholders (%)

    The percentage of employed people in each city holding more than one job at a time.

    Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics; Eurostat; local employment statistics; United Nations; World Bank.

    Inflation (%)

    The rate of price inflation for a range of consumer goods and services including food, beverages, clothing, housing, water, electricity, gas, furnishing, health, transport, communication, recreation, restaurants and hotels. The study compared the index values from the start of the pandemic (using an average of the months January and February 2020) with the index values from the most recent available data to show the percentage change. The study used state-level data for the US and country-level data for the rest of the world.

    Sources: IMF; BLS.

    Paid Parental Leave (Days)

    The number of paid family leave days afforded to employees by law in each city.

    Sources: ILO; OECD; official local government websites; Thomson Reuters.

    Society and Institutions

    Covid Impact (Score)

    A score that reflects the social and economic impact of a location’s Covid response, split across three areas: public health, economic, and social. The public health impact is quantified through cases and deaths relative to population; the economic impact through year-on-year GDP growth in 2020 and 2021; and the social impact through the severity of limiting measures put in place to contain the pandemic, and changes in mobility patterns as an indicator of the effect of these restrictions. A higher score reflects a more mitigated impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Sources: Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker; International Monetary Fund; Apple – Covid-19 Mobility Trends Reports.

    Covid Support (Score)

    A score that reflects the income support provided by governments to workers affected by the economic effects of Covid. The score takes into account government programmes to replace income lost due to Covid, duration of unemployment benefits, consumer confidence, household spending and general wage levels, as well as overall government spending to lessen the economic impact of Covid. In addition, the number of Covid cases and deaths were taken into account.

    Sources: Nature Human Behaviour; IMF; OECD; ILO; Worldometers.

    Healthcare (Score)

    A score that rates a city’s healthcare system based on accessibility, quality of care and satisfaction. Country-level data was obtained from the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) index for access and quality indicators, while US cities data incorporates state-level data from the Health Access and Quality (HAQ) study. Additional data was taken from healthcare access indexes developed by the World Health Organisation and the European Commission. Satisfaction survey results were taken at a city level. A higher score reflects greater accessibility, quality of care and user rating for each city's healthcare infrastructure. city level.

    Sources: The Lancet; European Commission; WHO.

    Access to Mental Healthcare (Score)

    A score that reflects the accessibility and effectiveness of governments’ implementation of mental health policies catering for individuals with mental health illnesses. This factor uses national data on governance, access to treatment and the environment necessary for treatment. It also incorporates suicide rates and city-level survey data on healthcare quality. A higher score reflects a more effective and accessible mental healthcare network.

    Sources: EIU; Institute for Health and Metrics Evaluation; WHO; Mental Health America; Dartmouth Institute; WHO; local statistics departments.

    Inclusivity & Tolerance (Score)

    A score that reflects the combined scores of the ‘Gender Equality’ (degree of gender parity), as well as the ‘LGBT+’ (inclusiveness and tolerance) factors, as detailed below:

    Gender:

    The score was developed using data on the level of disparity in economic opportunity and participation, educational attainment, health and political empowerment between genders. City-level data was collected for US cities, with country-level data obtained for non-US cities. A higher score reflects greater gender equality.

    Sources: Economist; World Economic Forum; Council on Foreign Relations; OECD.

    LGBT+

    The score examines the extent of equality and protection with an emphasis on employment rights, legislation, access to healthcare, as well as political representation for the LGBT+ community. The percentage of the population identifying as LGBT+ was also included, as environments in which a higher number of citizens feel comfortable openly identifying as a minority indicates a more tolerant and supportive community. A higher score reflects a higher degree of LGBT+ equality.

    Sources: Spartacus; Gallup; local statistics departments.

    City Liveability

    Affordability (Score)

    A score that reflects monthly living costs as a proportion of the average household income after tax. Monthly costs include rent, basic utilities costs, groceries, internet connection, leisure activities, clothes and dining out. A higher score indicates a higher level of remaining monthly income after accounting for these deductions.

    Sources: OECD.

    Happiness, Culture & Leisure (Score)

    The combined scores of both the ‘Happiness’ and ‘Culture & Leisure’ factors, as detailed below:

    Happiness

    The score includes the average perceived level of happiness at a city level. In the rare absence of city-level data, national data was used. The score is calculated from survey responses evaluating the perceived happiness with one’s own life, as well as the degree of positive and negative effects a respondent experiences. A higher score reflects higher degrees of self-perceived happiness.

    Sources: Sustainable Development Solutions Network; Wallethub.

    Culture & Leisure

    The score indicates the vibrancy and variety of cultural and lifestyle offerings in a city. It combines cultural city rankings, the number of people employed in the cultural and creative industries, and the number of leisure facilities and activities available per capita, including sports stadiums, restaurants, parks, shops, entertainment and nightlife venues. Cities with an exceptional number of activities were given supplementary points. A higher score reflects a greater cultural and leisure activities offering.

    Sources: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; European Commission; TimeOut; Wallethub; OSM; TripAdvisor.

    City Safety (Score)

    The degree of a city’s safety in more than a dozen key areas, including environmental, social and infrastructural security. Indicators include statistics on injuries and fatalities, damage caused at an economic level, public opinion data, and data on the vulnerability of a location to particular hazards. A higher score reflects a safer city.

    Sources: Germanwatch; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; Economist Intelligence Unit; European Commission; Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre; Igarape Institute; Vision of Humanity; WHO.

    Outdoor Spaces (Score)

    The prevalence and accessibility of a city’s urban green infrastructure as a score, including its proximity to residents and the percentage of land allocated to green space. Data on weather and daylight conditions that could affect the use of public outdoor spaces was also incorporated. This includes average temperatures, the annual number of rainy days, annual sunshine hours, and cloudlessness.

    Significant weighting is placed on the green spaces indicator, as the existence of favourable weather alone is not a condition for a good score in this section. Data was collected at a city level. A higher score reflects a greater urban green infrastructure, as well as better environmental conditions for outdoor life.

    Sources: United States Forest Service; The Trust for Public Land; OECD; European Environmental Agency; WeatherSpark.

    Air Quality (Score)

    Annual median particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) pollution for the year 2022, represented as a score. Daily average data was taken across all days of a single year, with the median pollution level representing the overall score. Data was taken at a city level. A higher score reflects greater air quality.

    Sources: AQICN; WHO; Plume Labs.

    Wellness and Fitness (Score)

    The general state of a community’s physical fitness and health as represented by the population’s average life expectancy, as well as levels of inactivity, obesity, and the number of fitness studios and gyms per capita. National data was used for life expectancy at birth, while US cities use city-level data. Adult obesity rates and the prevalence of physical inactivity were taken at a national level, with US cities using state level data. Data on the number of gyms per capita is taken at a city level. A higher score reflects a better state of a community’s physical fitness and health.

    Sources: WHO; US Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Opportunity Insights; The State of Childhood Obesity; OSM Overpass Turbo API.

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